LSAT考试阅读速度提高练习1

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  TIPS FOR INCREASING READING SPEED

  

  As our eyes move across the page they make a series of jerky movements. Whenever they come to rest on a word that is called a fixation. Most people fixate once on each word across a line of print. In order to make our speed increase we must take in more words with each fixation, rather than make our eyes move faster.

  

  1. Try to avoid focusing on every word, but rather look at groups of 2 to 3 words. For instancethis sentence could be grouped in this manner:

  

  for instance / this sentence / could be grouped / in this manner ’

  

  2. Work on vocabulary improvement. Familiarize yourself with new words so you don’t get stuck on them when you read them again.

  

  3. Read more! 15 minutes a day of reading an average size novel equals 18 books a year at an average reading speed

  

  4.Determine your purpose before reading. If you only need main ideas, then allow yourself to skim the material. Don’t feel you must read very word.

  

  5.Spend a few minutes a day reading at a faster than comfortable rate (about 2 to 3 times faster than your normal speed). Use your hand or an index card to guide your eyes down the page. Then time yourself reading a few pages at your normal speed. You’ll find that often your normal reading speed will increase after your skimming practice.

  

  6. If you have poor concentration when reading, practice reading for only 5 10 minutes at a time and gradually increase this time.

  

  7.There are several books on increasing reading speed available in most bookstores. If you are serious about increasing your rate you may want to work systematically through one of these books

  

  SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING READING SPEED

  

  Improvement of Reading Rate

  

  It is safe to say that almost anyone can double his speed of reading while maintaining equal or even higher comprehension. In other words, anyone can improve the speed with which he gets what he wants from his reading.

  

  The average college student reads between 250 and 350 words per minute on fiction and non-technical materials. A "good" reading speed is around 500 to 700 words per minute, but some people can read a thousand words per minute or even faster on these materials. What makes the difference? There are three main factors involved in improving reading speed: (1) the desire to improve, (2) the willingness to try new techniques and (3) the motivation to practice. :

  

  Learning to read rapidly and well presupposes that you have the necessary vocabulary and comprehension skills. When you have advanced on the reading comprehension materials to a level at which you can understand college-level materials, you will be ready to speed reading practice in earnest.

  

  The Role of Speed in the Reading Process

  

  Understanding the role of speed in the reading process is essential. Research has shown a close relation between speed and understanding. For example, in checking progress charts of thousands of individuals taking reading trainingit has been found in most cases that an increase in rate has been paralleled by an increase in comprehensionand that where rate has gone downcomprehension has also decreased.

  

  Although there is at present little statistical evidence, it seems that plodding word-by-word analysis (or word reading) inhibits understanding. There is some reason to believe that the factors producing slow reading are also involved in lowered comprehension. Most adults are able to increase their rate of reading considerably and rather quickly without lowering comprehension. These same individuals seldom show an increase in comprehension when they reduce their rate. In other casescomprehension is actually better at higher rates of speed. Such resultsof courseare heavily dependent upon the method used to gain the increased rate. Simply reading more rapidly without actual improvement in basic reading habits usually results in lowered comprehension.

  

  Factors that Reduce Reading Rate

  

  Some of the facts which reduce reading rate: (a) limited perceptual span i.e.word-by-word reading; (b) slow perceptual reaction timei.e.slowness of recognition and response to the material; (c) vocalizationincluding the need to vocalize in order to achieve comprehension; (d) faulty eye movementsincluding inaccuracy in placement of the pagein return sweepin rhythm and regularity of movementetc.; (e) regressionboth habitual and as associated with habits of concentration; (f) faulty habits of attention and concentrationbeginning with simple inattention during the reading act and faulty processes of retention; (g) lack of practice in readingdue simply to the fact that the person has read very little and has limited reading interests so that very little reading is practiced in the daily or weekly schedule; (h) fear of losing comprehensioncausing the person to suppress his rate deliberately in the firm belief that comprehension is improved if he spends more time on the individual words; (i) habitual slow readingin which the person cannot read faster because he has always read slowly, (j) poor evaluation of which aspects are important and which are unimportantand (k) the effort to remember everything rather than to remember selectively.

  

  Since these conditions act also to reduce comprehension increasing the reading rate through eliminating them is likely to result in increased comprehension as well. This is an entirely different matter from simply speeding up the rate of reading without reference to the conditions responsible for the slow rate. In fact, simply speeding the rate especially through forced accelerationmay actually resultand often doesin making the real reading problem more severe. In additionforced acceleration may even destroy confidence in ability to read. The obvious solution then is to increase rate as a part of a total improvement of the whole reading process. This is a function of special training programs in reading.

  

  Basic Conditions for Increased Reading Rate

  

  A well planned program prepares for maximum increase in rate by establishing the necessary conditions. Four basic conditions include:

  

  1. Have your eyes checked. Before embarking on a speed reading program, make sure that any correctable eye defects you may have are taken care of by checking with your eye doctor. Oftenvery slow reading is related to uncorrected eye defects.

  

  2. Eliminate the habit of pronouncing words as you read. If you sound out words in your throat or whisper them, you can read slightly only as fast as you can read aloud. You should be able to read most materials at least two or three times faster silently than orally. If you are aware of sounding or "hearing" words as you readtry to concentrate on key words and meaningful ideas as you force yourself to read faster.

  

  3. Avoid regressing (rereading). The average student reading at 250 words per minute regresses or rereads about 20 times per page. Rereading words and phrases is a habit which will slow your reading speed down to a snail’s pace. Usually, it is unnecessary to reread wordsfor the ideas you want are explained and elaborated more fully in later contexts. Furthermorethe slowest reader usually regresses most frequently. Because he reads slowlyhis mind has time to wander and his rereading reflects both his inability to concentrate and his lack of confidence in his comprehension skills.

  

  4. Develop a wider eye-span. This will help you read more than one word at a glance. Since written material is less meaningful if read word by word, this will help you learn to read by phrases or thought units.

  

  Rate Adjustment

  

  Poor results are inevitable if the reader attempts to use the same rate indiscriminately for a-1 types of material and for all reading purposes. He must learn to adjust his rate to his purpose in reading and to the difficulty of the material he is reading. This ranges from a maximum rate on easy, familiarinteresting material or in reading to gather information on a particular pointto minimal rate on material which is unfamiliar in content and language structure or which must be thoroughly digested. The effective reader adjusts his ratethe ineffective reader uses the same rate for all types of material.

  

  Rate adjustment may be overall adjustment to the article as a whole, or internal adjustment within the article. Overall adjustment establishes the basic rate at which the total article is readinternal adjustment involves the necessary variations in rate for each varied part of the material. As an analogyyou plan to take a 100-mile mountain trip. Since this will be a relatively hard drive with hills, curvesand a mountain passyou decide to take three hours for the total tripaveraging about 35 miles an hour. This is your overall rate adjustment. Howeverin actual driving you may slow down to no more than 15 miles per hour on some curves and hillswhile speeding up to 50 miles per hour or more on relatively straight and level sections. This is your internal rate adjustment. There is no set ratethereforewhich the good reader follows inflexibly in reading a particular selectioneven though he has set himself an overall rate for the total job.

  

  Overall rate adjustment should be based on your reading plan, your reading purposeand the nature and difficulty of the material. The reading plan itself should specify the general rate to be used. This is based on the total "size up". It may be helpful to consider examples of how purpose can act to help determine the rate to be used. To understand informationskim or scan at a rapid rate. To determine value of material or to read for enjoymentread rapidly or slowly according to you feeling. To read analyticallyread at a moderate pace to permit interrelating ideas. The nature and difficulty of the material requires an adjustment in rate in conformity with your ability to handle that type of material. Obviouslylevel of difficulty is highly relative to the particular reader. While Einstein’s theories may be extremely difficult to most laymenthey may be very simple and clear to a professor of physics. Hencethe layman and the physics professor must make a different rate adjustment in reading the same material. Generallydifficult material will entail a slower ratesimpler material will permit a faster rate.

  

  Internal rate adjustment involves selecting differing rates for parts of a given article. In general, decrease speed when you find the following (1) unfamiliar terminology not clear in context. Try to understand it in context at that pointotherwiseread on and return to it later; (2) difficult sentence and paragraph structureslow down enough to enable you to untangle them and get accurate context for the passage; (3) unfamiliar or abstract concepts. Look for applications or examples of you own as well as studying those of the writer. Take enough time to get them clearly in mind; (4) detailedtechnical material. This includes complicated directionsstatements of difficult principlesmaterials on which you have scant background; (5) material on which you want detailed retention.

  

  In general, increase speed when you meet the following: (a) simple material with few ideas which are new to youmove rapidly over the familiar onesspend most of your time on the unfamiliar ideas; (b) unnecessary examples and illustrations. Since these are included to clarify ideasmove over them rapidly when they are not needed; (c) detailed explanation and idea elaboration which you do not need, (d) broadgeneralized ideas and ideas which are restatements of previous ones. These can be readily graspedeven with scan techniques.

  

  In keeping your reading attack flexible, adjust your rate sensitivity from article to article. It is equally important to adjust you rate within a given article. Practice these techniques until a flexible reading rate becomes second nature to you.

  

  Summary

  

  In summary, evidence has been cited which seems to indicate a need for and value of a rapid rate of readingwhile at the same time indicating the dangers of speed in readingas such. We have attempted to point out the relationship between rate of reading and extent of comprehensionas well as the necessity for adjustment of reading ratealong with whole reading attackto the type of material and the purposes of the reader.

  

  Finally, the factors which reduce rate were surveyed as a basis for pointing out that increase in rate should come in conjunction with the elimination of these retarding aspects of the reading process and as a part of an overall reading training program where increase in rate is carefully prepared for in the training sequence.

  

 

  

  

  

 

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